This book is a collection of chapters concerning the use of biomass for the sustainable production of energy and chemicals-an important goal that will help decrease the production of greenhouse gases to help mitigate global warming, provide energy security in the face of dwindling petroleum reserves, improve balance of payment problems and spur local economic development. Clearly there are ways to save energy that need to be encouraged more. These include more use of energy sources such as, among others, manure in anaerobic digesters, waste wood in forests as fuel or feedstock for cellulosic ethanol, and conservation reserve program (CRP) land crops that are presently unused in the US. The use of biofuels is not new, Rudolf Diesel used peanut oil as fuel in the ?rst engines he developed (Chap. 8), and ethanol was used in the early 1900s in the US as automobile fuel [Songstad et al. (2009) Historical perspective of biofuels: learning from the past to rediscover the future. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 45:189-192). Brazil now produces enough sugar cane ethanol to make up about 50% of its transportation fuel needs (Chap. 4). The next big thing will be cellulosic ethanol. At present, there is also the use of Miscanthus x giganteous as fuel for power plants in the UK (Chap. 2), bagasse (sugar cane waste) to power sugar cane mills (Chap. 4), and waste wood and sawdust to power sawmills (Chap. 7).
Although more than 12 years have passed since publication of the first WHO histological classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumours, the changes in this revised edition are not radical. Only one formerly recognized entity has been deleted: the monstrocellular sarcoma, because there is immuno cytochemical evidence of its astrocytic nature. Several new tumour types have been added: the pleomorphic xanthoastro cytoma has been generally acknowledged for almost a decade, the neurocytoma has gradually evolved as a clinical-pathological entity, and two new entries, the dysembryoplastic neuroepi thelial tumour and the desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma, have only been characterized morphologically during the past few years. We regard the classification as an international standard to facilitate communication and have tried to avoid current con ceptual controversies. The majority of partiCipants supported inclusion of the term "primitive neuroectodermal tumour" (pNET). However, because of our limited knowledge of the biol ogy of embryonal CNS tumours, preference was given to use PNET selectively, rather than applying it to all small cell embryo nal childhood tumours, irrespective of their histological pheno type. Ependymomas and meningiomas now have new histological SUbtypes. Most of these are not associated with biological behaviour different from the parent tumour type, but their description will aid the practising pathologist to identify and classify these lesions. 2 Introduction Histological Typing Following the philosophy of this WHO series, classification is based primarily on histological assessment of cell types and tis sue patterns recognized by conventional light microscopy.
This volume is compiled based on the proceedings of the 5th International Plant Cold Hardiness Seminar, which was held at Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA, August 5 to 8, 1996. Participants representing 16 nations and 22 U. S. states attended the seminar. Researchers came from major laboratories around the world involving plant cold hardiness research. The information compiled in this volume represents the state-of the-art research and our understanding of plant cold hardiness in terms of molecular biol ogy, biochemistry, and physiology. The 1996 International Plant Cold Hardiness Seminar was the fifth of the series; it was first held in 1977 at the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, and since then has met every 5 years. The overall goal of this seminar series is to foster the exchange of ideas and research findings among the diverse groups of scientists studying freezing and chilling stresses from a wide variety of perspectives. This is the only international conference focus ing its programs entirely on low temperature stress in plants. In accordance with the tradi tion, the fifth conference focused on freezing and chilling stress of plants and covered various aspects of plant cold hardiness, including molecular genetics, biochemistry, physi ology, and agricultural applications. All contributors to this volume are eminent researchers who have had significant contributions to the knowledge of plant cold hardiness.
This book uses risk in its dictionary meaning as the probabiHty of an unde sirable outcome, and has two research questions: when managers make de cisions, what leads them to choose a risky alternative? and: what deter mines whether the decision proves correct? Answers to these questions form a model of decision making that explains the process and results of managers' risk-taking in the real world. There is an extensive literature on risk and decision making because the topic has been of interest in many disciplines since at least the 18^^ century. Thus insights on the research questions are available from studies of ani mals, humans and organisations; and have been drawn by scholars in biol ogy, psychology, finance and management. Even so, there is a large gap as most studies are conducted away from corporate settings and use subjects with limited decision experience. The few studies set in real-world condi tions tend to concentrate on just a single aspect of decision makers' attrib utes, setting and behaviour, and on either decision choices or outcomes. The empirical work in this book is designed to fill part of this gap.
Models to forecast changes in mortality, morbidity, and disability in elderly populations are essential to national and state policies for health and welfare programs. This volume presents a wide-ranging survey of the forecasting of health of elderly populations, including the modelling of the incidence of chronic diseases in the elderly, the differing perspectives of actuarial and health care statistics, and an assessment of the impact of new technologies on the elderly population. Amongst the topics covered are - uncertainties in projections from census and social security data and actuarial approaches to forecasting - plausible ranges for population growth using biol ogical models and epidemiological time series data - the financing of long term care programs - the effects of major disabling diseases on health expenditures - forecasting cancer risks and risk factors As a result, this wide-ranging volume will become an indispensable reference for all those whose research touches on these topics.
The Documentation for Biotechnology The classic 'From Clones to Claims' provides a comparative analysis of European, US and Japanese patent practice in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical area. It systematically organizes the jurisprudence of the Boards of Appeal of the European Patent Office (EPO) according to the topics: &#8226;which inventions are patentable &#8226;disclosure requirements for Claims &#8226;clarity of Claims &#8226;enabling disclosure &#8226;deposit of biological material &#8226;priority &#8226;novelty &#8226;inventive step &#8226;essentials of Supplementary Protection Certificates (SPCs) and &#8226;procedural issues for examination and opposition proceedings Given the book's comments and structure, the EPO's jurisprudence is immediately accessible for specific areas of daily practice. For instance, if the question arises to what extent antibodies can be claimed and how enablement, novelty and inventive step of such claims are routinely assessed by the EPO, separate specialized chapters of the book can be consulted. In its analysis of the jurisprudence, the new edition comprises a presentation of the changes and developments relevant to inventions in the area of stem cells, plants, diagnostic assays and surgical methods. The specific changes in the options for filing divisional applications and the recent procedural restrictions concerning the filing of claim requests, documents and experimental evidence are also addressed. Based on the comparative evaluation with US and Japanese law and practice, the book can be used as a guide for preparing European patent applications that can be sustained in these other jurisdictions. Furthermore, the new edition reports the significant changes in US and Japanese patent law and jurisprudence. For example, in the US a post-grant review system has been introduced, which is similar to the EPO's opposition proceedings. Japan has reintroduced an opposition system. As a consequence of the Myriad cases, compounds of nature can no longer be patented in the US, unless the claims relate to structural or functional variants thereof. A similar hurdle has been established in the US with respect to inventions related to diagnostics. The book is not only useful for advanced practioners, but also for beginners as an introduction and orientation to the field of biotechnology patents in their international context. The Authors: Dipl.-Biol. Dr. Hans-Rainer Jaenichen; Dipl.-Biol. Dr. Jürgen Meier, Patentanwälte, European Patent Attorneys/European Trademark & Design Attorneys, Vossius & Partner, München; Leslie A. McDonell, J.D., Attorney at Law, Finnegan, Henderson, Farabow, Garrett & Dunner, LLP, Washington D.C. and Cambrindge, MA USA; James F. Haley, Jr., J.D., Ph.D., Attoney at Law, Fish & Neave Intellectual Property Group, Ropes & Gray LLP, New York, New York USA; Yoshinori Hosoda, Japanese Patent Attorney, Hosoda International Patent Office, Osaka, Japan
That residues of pesticide and other contaminants in the total environ ment are of concern to everyone everywhere is attested by the reception accorded previous volumes of 'Residue Reviews' and by the gratifying enthusiasm, sincerity, and efforts shown by all the individuals from whom manuscripts have been solicited. Despite much propaganda to the contrary, there can never be any serious question that pest-control chemicals and food-additive chemicals are essential to adequate food production, manu facture, marketing, and storage, yet without continuing surveillance and intelligent control some of those that persist in our foodstuffs could at times conceivably endanger the public health. Ensuring safety-in-use of these many chemicals is a dynamic challenge, for established ones are continually being displaced by newly developed ones more acceptable to food technologists, pharmacologists, toxicologists, and changing pest-con trol requirements in progressive food-producing economies. These matters are of genuine concern to increasing numbers of govern mental agencies and legislative bodies around the world, for some of these chemicals have resulted in a few mishaps from improper use. Adequate safety-in-use evaluations of any of these chemicals persisting into our food stuffs are not simple matters, and they incorporate the considered judg ments of many individuals highly trained in a variety of complex biol ogical, chemical, food technological, medical, pharmacological, and toxi cological disciplines.
This volume contains the text of the main lectures given by interna tionally recognized scientists at the Tenth European Workshop on Mo lecular and Cellular Endocrinology of the Testis, held in Capri, Italy, from 28 March to 1 April 1998. Topics include spermatogonial transplantation, germ stem cell biol ogy, regulation of meiosis and spermiogenesis, growth factors, cell sig naling and transduction, steroidogenesis, androgen-regulated genes, sperm activation and sperm factors active at fertilization and the mo lecular basis of specific pathologies of the testis. Looking back at the previous 'Capri edition' (1986), the lectures of which were published by Elsevier, it is perhaps not surprising to notice that many of the top ics addressed at that time are basically the same now. On the other hand, it appears evident that the search for experimental models of sig nificant physiological value to study testicular function has advanced greatly. In this connection, the use of genetically manipulated animal models in the study of the regulation of spermatogenesis and of the en docrine role of the testis represents a core part of the present volume. The authors deserve our special thanks not only for delivering ex cellent state-of-the-art lectures, but also for providing their manuscripts well before the meeting.
Research in the field of molecular biology has progressed at a fascinating rate in recent years. Much of this progress results from the development of new laboratory techniques that allow very precise fractionation and analysis of nucleic acids and proteins, as well as the construction of recom- binant DNA molecules that can then be cloned and expressed in host cells. Progress has been so rapid that there has been a shortfall in the training of appropriately qualified staff. Many existing laboratory workers require retraining, and many educational institutions have had difficulty incor- porating the new molecular biology techniques into their teaching programs. Although there are several manuals currently available that describe laboratory techniques in molecular biology, they are principally written for the indivi- dual research worker and are not intended for use in the design of practical classes for students. The aim of this book is to provide just such a series of pro- tocols for the teaching of practical molecular biology. The idea arose following the success of several Workshops in Molecular Biology, organized and taught by staff in the Biol- ogy Department of the Hatfield Polytechnic. Gradually, the protocols used in the workshops have been incorporated into the Hatfield undergraduate and postgraduate teaching pro- grams and have now been collected together to form a book.